Ready to start working on your intonation?
Let’s talk about the key elements of intonation you need to understand as you learn how to use your pitch and change your tone of voice in order to communicate more effectively in American English.
This introduction to intonation will help you understand the following:
- why intonation matters for clear communication,
- the most important roles of intonation in American English, and
- the key elements of intonation you’ll need to work on, such as word stress, sentence stress, pitch, and intonation patterns.
This video is the very first lesson from the Intonation Clinic, my complete course on expressing the right emotions, attitudes, and meaning through your voice.
Intonation Clinic will teach you how to create the music and melody of English through the rise and fall of your voice so that you sound more interesting, more engaging, and more natural when you talk.
Whether your pitch is all over the place, and you need more control, or your voice sounds flat, and you want to sound more expressive in English, Intonation Clinic can help you!
Because this video is an introduction to topics I cover in depth inside the course, I don’t share a lot of examples. However, I will direct you to related resources so that you can learn more.
Let’s get started!
What is intonation?
First things first, what is intonation?
Intonation is how native speakers communicate their meaning through their tone of voice.
Understanding intonation is key to interpreting the deeper meaning behind the words you hear.
We communicate additional meaning through the rise and fall of our pitch, and by stressing or emphasizing certain words in the sentence.
Intonation provides additional information to your listener and performs various linguistic functions.
Most Important Uses of Intonation in American English
Here are some of the most important uses of intonation.
Intonation has a grammatical function, such as signaling the difference between a statement and a question, or distinguishing between an information question or a yes/no question.
Intonation also has an accentual function, which means it can be used to emphasize or draw attention to certain words.
This happens when we introduce new information, contrast two ideas, or clarify our meaning.
Intonation has an attitudinal or emotional function, which means it conveys additional information about the speaker’s mood, feelings, emotions, or attitude.
This type of information we get from intonation could be about the speaker’s general attitude, their emotions about what they’re saying, or their feelings towards the listener.
To interpret this type of intonation, it’s important to pay attention to other contextual clues.
Intonation also has a discourse function, which means it signals how ideas go together in speech.
For example, we use stress and intonation to signal thought groups, or how we break our speech into smaller, more digestible chunks.
Intonation has a psychological function, which means it makes ideas easier to understand, memorize, and say.
You can hear this use of intonation in how we say lists and series, open- and closed-choice questions, large numbers, and phone numbers.
Intonation is used for conversation management, which means it helps facilitate the flow of conversation by signaling whose turn it is to speak.
Some examples are how we use a steep drop to signal that a thought is complete, or how we maintain a slight or a steep rise in order to signal that we’re not done speaking yet.
Last, intonation has an indexical function, which means it signals our personal or social identity.
For instance, uptalk can be considered a marker of identity among younger generations.
People from certain regions may use uptalk or more or less pitch variation to signal where they’re from.
This use can also be heard among people of a certain profession:
- Teachers and educators often use a “teacher” voice.
- Preachers or religious authorities often speak with a certain tone of voice.
- Transportation workers like conductors and bus drivers often recite stops or information with a certain voice.
As you continue to deepen your understanding of intonation, you may be able to identify even more functions.
Researchers and linguists don’t always agree on the number of categories.
Inside the Intonation Clinic, you’ll explore all of these functions of intonation.
You can find more videos on these functions or roles in this series of articles and videos on intonation.
Word Stress and Intonation in American English
Next, let’s talk about the foundational elements of intonation, or the building blocks that you’ll pay attention to as you work on your intonation.
First and foremost, you need to have an awareness of word stress.
Word stress is when we make one syllable of a word longer, louder, and higher in pitch.
In order to clearly pronounce words in English, you need to be able to stress the right syllable by making it longer, louder, and higher in pitch.
Word stress is important in intonation because we sometimes use these stressed syllables in special ways to communicate meaning, such as:
- changing our pitch on a particular syllable,
- lengthening a syllable more than normal, or by
- clearly articulating each and every syllable.
When you pay attention to word stress, you’ll notice that each word has its own stress pattern.
When you know how the word should be stressed, you’ll be able to understand if the speaker changes the stress pattern in order to make a certain point.
To practice word stress with lots of examples, check out my article and video on Word Stress in American English: English Rhythm and Syllable Stress for Clear Pronunciation.
Sentence Stress and Intonation in American English
Sentence stress is when we put extra emphasis on the words that carry the meaning of the sentence.
If you pay careful attention to the words that receive the most emphasis or the most stress in a sentence, you’ll notice that we don’t stress every single word.
The reason that not every single word receives equal emphasis is that some words in a sentence are what we call content words. They convey the meaning of the sentence.
Other words are function words. They’re part of the grammar structure of the sentence and help keep the sentence flowing.
In order to understand intonation, you need to know which words should be stressed in a sentence in order to identify when people emphasize words that aren’t normally stressed.
We shift the stress within a sentence in order to emphasize different words to make a point.
At times changing up the sentence stress, as well as which word receives the most stress in the sentence, can actually affect the meaning of the sentence.
You’ll learn all about content and function words, how to shift stress to change meaning, and more in the first section of the Intonation Clinic.
To work on your sentence stress and understand the difference between content and function words, check out my article and video on Sentence Stress in American English: How to Emphasize Content Words for English Rhythm.
Pitch and Intonation in American English
Another important element of intonation is pitch, or what I often call pitch variation.
In short, pitch refers to the highness or lowness of our voice.
If you listen closely to native English speakers, you’ll notice that our pitch changes dramatically within the sentence.
You can often tell how a person is feeling by how their pitch changes.
Pitch works differently in different languages, so you’ll need to develop a deeper awareness of pitch and more control over the pitch in your own voice in order to produce different intonation patterns.
We’ll start exploring your pitch in the first section of Intonation Clinic, called “Intonation Basics: Music and Melody of English.”
To improve how you use and control your pitch in English, check out these two resources:
Intonation Patterns in American English
Once you have a solid understanding of the basics of intonation such as content and function words, inflection, and pitch steps and glides, it’s time to move on to intonation patterns in American English.
When we talk about intonation patterns, we’re talking about the predictable, expected rises and falls in pitch throughout your speech.
In American English, we regularly use three intonation patterns:
- falling intonation, which is often called rise-fall intonation in linguistics terms;
- rising intonation, which can include a straight rise or a dip followed by a rise; and
- holding intonation, which is often called non-final intonation, the continuation rise, or fall-rise intonation.
(When learning about more negative emotions, you’ll also hear straight falling intonation, where there’s a steeper fall without the proceeding rise.)
If you join Intonation Clinic, you’ll start working on intonation patterns in the section on intonation patterns in American English.
To practice rising and falling intonation, check out these resources:
Emotions and Attitudes Expressed Through Intonation
In addition to these three elements, you also have to have a sensitivity to the emotions and attitudes conveyed through our tone of voice.
Please note that English is not a tonal language.
When we use the word “tone” in English, we’re talking about your tone of voice, or how your pitch reveals how you feel.
Think about how a person makes you feel when they’re speaking with certain tones in English.
Pay attention to how you can decipher a person’s emotion or attitude based on how their voice or their pitch changes.
Can you understand the deeper meaning behind their words?
For example, some emotions that we convey through intonation include the following:
- excitement, and
As you’ll learn in the Intonation Clinic, there are many, many different emotions or attitudes that we express through different tones of voice. We’ll cover them in the section on “How to Express Your Emotions and Meaning through Intonation.”
To review some of the emotions and attitudes that we express through intonation, check out this article and video on Intonation Exercises: Change Your Tone of Voice to Express Emotions in English.
Intonation in Real-Life Conversations
By now, you understand how important intonation is to communicating how you feel and clearly expressing your meaning.
Now you need to learn how to communicate more effectively using these intonation patterns.
Intonation can keep a conversation flowing and show you’re interested in what the other person is saying.
On top of that, it can help you show certainty or uncertainty, express openness and respect, sound more interesting and engaging, and sound more polite.
Last but not least, we’ll talk about special cultural uses of certain intonation patterns so that you can understand why you hear Americans speak in a certain way.
We’ll cover all these topics in depth in the Intonation Clinic in the section on Intonation in Real-Life Conversations.
You can explore some of the real-life uses of intonation in this series of articles and videos on intonation patterns in American English.
Now that you understand the key elements of intonation, it’s time to get started!
If you’re interested, you can join me inside the Intonation Clinic and start improving how you express yourself through your tone of voice right away.
Now I’d love to hear from you! Which aspects of intonation do you find most challenging? What do you plan to start working on first?
If you have any questions for me about intonation, leave a comment and let me know. As you can see, it’s one of my favorite topics!